83) See The Role of the National Science Foundation in the Innovation Ecosystem, supra note 64, at 8-10 (setting forth programs that the NSF has already instituted in order to advance the commercialization process); but see Response to Federal RFI on POCC Commercialization, supra note 57 (critiquing the available federal funding as too short-term and small-scale, and inappropriate for the development of complex solutions required by challenging problems, as in developing integrated manufacturing platforms for personalized medicine).
92) See Response to Federal RFI on POCC Commercialization, supra note 57 (arguing the government should focus more funding on proof of concept, with a goal of translational science); NCATS, supra note 17 (promoting translational science in the NIH).
POCC noted, however, that the Commonwealth remains without a statewide articulated and measured cross-discipline child abuse prevention strategy.
With the release of the fatality report, POCC reiterated its call for the creation of a state-level independent Office of Child Advocate.
PoCCs are designed to help address the particularly troublesome gap between the invention of a specific technology and its further development into new products or applications.
Public funding of PoCCs represents a new approach to technology development.
Many people became aware of PoCCs only with the current federal initiative, but the first PoCCs were established more than 10 years ago and were part of a broader trend emphasizing the development, transfer, and commercialization of university technologies.
Whereas early technology development infrastructure efforts focused on creating physical spaces, such as incubators and science parks, for technology development activity, PoCCs focus further upstream on the individual university researcher.
The first PoCCs included the Von Liebig Center at the University of California at San Diego and the Deshpande Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, founded in 2001 and 2002, respectfully.
In 2008, David Audretsch and Christine Gulbranson, both affiliated at that time with the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, published a widely discussed article introducing the first PoCCs as institutions "devoted towards facilitating the spillover and commercialization of university research.
As of the end of 2012, at least 30 additional PoCCs had been established.
Although our understanding of the effectiveness and structure of PoCCs is in its infancy, there are some indicators that such infrastructure might be an invaluable investment for universities and their stakeholders.