Several studies showed that the use of POFA delays the setting of concrete, and therefore the initial and final setting times increase with the increased POFA content (Tay 1990; Tay and Show 1995; Tangchirapat et al.
Tay (1990) and Tay and Show (1995) reported that the setting times of POFA concrete, though increased, still fulfilled the ASTM requirement (ASTM C150/ C150M-09 2009).
Limited studies investigated the effect of POFA on the segregation and bleeding of concrete.
Limited studies have been conducted to examine the effects of POFA on the plastic shrinkage, slump loss, and air content of concrete.
Limited literature is available on the heat of POFA concrete.
Many studies were carried out to examine the effect of POFA on the compressive strength of concrete.
The decrease in the compressive strength of concretes containing a greater amount of unground POFA was due to the large POFA particles with high porosity.
However, the later strength of POFA concrete was higher than that of OPC concrete.
The above-mentioned studies indicate that the effect of POFA on the compressive strength of concrete largely depends on its fineness.
The ground POFA particles fill the micro-voids between cement particles due to smaller particle size (Isaia et al.
Eldagal (2008) used 20% and 30% POFA passing through 10-[micro]m and 45-[micro]m sieves for determining the flexural strength of high strength concrete.
2007) made high strength concretes using 10-30% ground POFA and tested their splitting tensile strength.