(2) See BRUCE RICH, MORTGAGING THE EARTH: THE WORLD BANK, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPOVERISHMENT, AND THE CRISIS OF DEVELOPMENT (1994) for a discussion of such projects as the Polonoroeste
regional development program, Balbina Dam, and others.
One programme alone, the Polonoroeste
programme of regional development in the Brazilian states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, led to such large-scale migration that the population of Rondonia increased from 110,000 in 1970 to 1.5 million in 1988 [Browder (1989)].
Between 1978 and 1988, the forest in the Rondonia region around Polonoroeste
was reduced by an area the size of Massachusetts each year, the most rapid man-made change in the earth's surface visible from space.
In one infamous case, World Bank support for the Polonoroeste
regional development scheme of roadbuilding and agricultural settlement in the Brazilian state of Rondonia contributed to rapid deforestation of the area during the 1980s; by one estimate, the share of the state that had been deforested increased from 1.7 percent in 1978 to 23.7 percent by 1988.
We've had them in projects that have been publicly criticized -- the Polonoroeste
project in Brazil, the Narmada project, and there are others.
O estado de Mato Grosso recebeu a influencia de diversos programas de Governo no decorrer de seu processo historico de desenvolvimento e construcao de territorio, a exemplo destes programas citam-se o Plano de Integracao Nacional--PIN; Programa de Redistribuicao de Terras e de Estimulo a Agroindustria do Norte e do Nordeste PROTERRA; Programa de Desenvolvimento dos Cerrados--POLOCENTRO; Programa de Polos Agropecuarios e Agrominerais da Amazonia POLAMAZONIA e Programa Integrado de Desenvolvimento do Noroeste do Brasil POLONOROESTE
. Esses contribuiram e/ou determinaram aspectos da formacao, estrutura fundiaria, uso e ocupacao do territorio mato-grossense ate a atualidade.
Enquanto o Programa Integrado de Desenvolvimento Rural do Noroeste do Brasil (Polonoroeste
) abrangeu o sudoeste.
Growing from a small protest movement surrounding the Bank's large infrastructure projects in the 1980s, such as the infamous Polonoroeste
road project in the Brazilian Amazon, there are numerous nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that sprout up around any Bank-funded project that has the potential to harm the human rights and security of the local population and environment.
"If the World Bank has been part of the problem in the past," he said, "it can and will be a strong force in finding solutions in the future." Conable also felt constrained to deliver a public mea culpa for a single project -the gigantic road-building and agricultural colonization scheme in northwest Brazil known as Polonoroeste
, where he admitted that "the bank misread the human, institutional and physical realities of the jungle and the frontier."