A pseudo-disaccharide has also been isolated as a putative insulin second messenger that activates PP2C (Brautigan et al.
In order to identify natural products that affect PP2C function, we screened 700 methanol extracts from natural sources, such as plants and food ingredients, using recombinant mouse GST-PP2C[alpha].
Phosphatase activities of PP2A and PP2C were assayed using [alpha]-casein as substrates by the malachite green detection method (Fathi et al.
Characterization of PP2C activation mechanism by pisiferdiol, pisiferic acid and oleic acid
3 [micro]M in their absence, while the affinity of PP2C for [alpha]-casein was increased by their presence.
Next, we examined the dephosphorylation of phospho-Bad by detecting the protein levels of phospho-Ser112 compared with total Bad in HL60 cells, because Bad is known to be a substrate of PP2C (Klumpp et al.
PP2C is involved in various cellular events and signaling pathways via the dephosphorylation of various substrates, and is a unique protein phosphatase, being an [Mg.
In mammalian cells, PP2C is known to affect apoptosis through activation of the p53 signaling pathway and dephosphorylation of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bad (Ofek et al.
But, ABA does not interact directly with PP2Cs, so how does it cause them to be inhibited?
Recent studies had indicated that the members of a family of 14 proteins might each act as middle-men, but how those proteins detected ABA and inhibited PP2Cs remained a mystery - until now.