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The team, led by Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, Rajendra Kumar-Singh, found that PPADS inhibited the formation of pores, which lead to cell death within the eye, seen in dry AMD.
To test the effectiveness of a topical application of PPADS, the team of researchers induced the tissue damage and blood vessel growth characteristics of AMD in anesthetized mice.
The study found that topical application of the PPADS compound works on two fronts.
We first tested the moderately selective P2 antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS).
oxATP, unlike PPADS, did not decrease c-fos luciferase activity.
PPADS, a P2 agonist, given at 200 [micro]m inhibited both the activity of pPfTx and ATP (Figure 10).
In experiments with CPA, PPADS, A3P5PS, MCPG, MPEP, INdO, ASA, and Ab[PGE.sub.2] the drugs were diluted in HEPESKRH and incubated for 15 min before the application of the stimulus.
The response to ATP was abolished by pretreatment with PPADS (-86%, 100 [micro]M), an agonist of most P2 purinergic receptors, as well as with A3P5PS (-83%, 100 [micro]M), a selective P2Y: antagonist (Figure 3(d); [36]).
Pre-treatment with 100 pM of PPADS, a selective P2 purinoceptor antagonist, abolished the response of ATP (2 p.,M), and markedly attenuated the response of schisandrin (Fig.
1996), are recognized as apamin-sensitive candidates In the present study, ATP appeared to play a role in the action of schisandrin, as a purinoceptor antagonist PPADS at adequate concentrations significantly attenuated the schisandrin-induced relaxation.
Inhibition of the NANC relaxation of the Guinea-pig proximal colon longitudinal muscle by the purinoceptor antagonist PPADS, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, but not by a PACAP/VIP antagonist.