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PPARGPeroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma
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Therefore, GK may contribute to the cooperation between various genes and PPARG as a master regulator of fat and glycerol metabolism within the PPAR pathway.
Our results showed that eight genes were involved in the downstream pathways as transcription regulators, with the exception of PPARG and RXRA.
The DIAGRAM plus consortium observed that the T2D risk alleles at PPARG, FTO, IRS1, and the newly discovered gene KLF14, were associated with higher fasting insulin, with primary effect on insulin action, whereas 3 loci (TCF7L2, ARAP1, and CDKAL1) were found to be associated with reduced fasting insulin suggestive of [beta]-cell dysfunction (41).
Recently the DIAGRAM-plus consortium found an association of novel T2D loci KLF14 (rs972283 G allele) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in addition to 2 previously known T2D/obesity loci, FTO and PPARG (41).
Different adipogenic genes, such as PPARG, CEBPA, FABP4, and SCD, showed lower expression levels in the presence of capsaicin compared with the control (without capsaicin) (p < 0.
The authors carefully compare their assay with detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for PPARG and PAX8 and with detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PPAR[gamma] (because PPFP is produced at much higher concentrations than endogenous PPAR[gamma], strongly positive IHC results for PPAR[gamma] suggest PPFP production).
Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms including DNA methylation are reportedly involved in the transcriptional activation of PPARG during adipogenesis (Musri et al.
The PAX8/PPARG rearrangement is created by a somatic genetic translocation between chromosome arms 2q and 3p, in which the entire coding region of the PPARG transcription factor gene is fused in frame with the first 8 to 10 exons of the PAX8 gene, which encodes a thyroid-specific paired box transcription factor (6).
Rapamycin inhibited the expression and the transactivation activity of PPARG by blocking mTOR (Kim and Chen, 2004).
In vivo ligands for PPARG are thought to include a variety of fatty acids, and it has been proposed that PPARG may be a mediator of physiological responses to lipids (3).
For those overrepresented among loci associated with AluYb8 methylation, there were a number of developmentally related TFBS genes (CUX1, CHX10, PAX4, PPARG, TAL1/ITF2 heterodimer, HAND1, MYOD, OCT), as well as those involved in cell processes (ACTR3B, S8), gene expression (NFE2L), lipid/sterol homeostasis (NR3C1), and immune modulation (GATA1).
PPARG, HMGCS2, and CCL2 are all associated with preneoplastic and neoplastic levels in the liver disease progression, and PPARA is additionally associated with neoplastic lesions.