We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the distinctiveness of the four PPEI variables included in our investigation: monitoring school work, help with homework, communication with children, and parental academic expectation.
We tested three alternative models: a one-factor model comprising all 16 items of the four PPEI dimensions, a second-order factor model specifying the four dimensions of PPEI to constitute one general factor, and a four-factor model.
74, respectively, showing that PPEI scales are reliable for the current sample in this study.
The initial structural model was specified with direct paths from acculturation, self-esteem, and PPEI to the two educational outcome measures.
This model portrays the mediating role of PPEI between acculturation and two academic outcomes.
Four paths from self-esteem to each dimension of PPEI were added to the initial model and a chi-square difference test was performed to compare this model to the initial model.
Longitudinal research will also be necessary to examine the direction of causality and to test the longevity of the effects of PPEI, acculturation, and self-esteem.