Some areas for deepening the contextual connection of the PPPM model can be found in emerging scholarship that moves beyond outcomes associated with the restrictive and rigid enactment of masculinity and acknowledges how many men live their lives in a more adaptive, prosocial manner.
These ideas also represent some of the strengths within the PPPM model that can be highlighted and reinforced.
In their original description of the PPPM model, Kiselica and Englar-Carlson (2010) suggested that such counseling consists of identifying, affirming, and building upon the following male strengths that are passed down from men to boys across generations:
How does the use of PPPM influence in the total amount of analgesics and the optimal dose given to the child?
The PPPM was used as an intervention to promote children's pain alleviation in the intervention group.
Parents in the intervention group were also provided with the Finnish version of the PPPM, which consisted of 14 behavioral changes (see Table 2).
He sells construction plans for the PPPM
on his Web site.
Multiple regression analyses were also employed to assess the association between PPPM expenditures in the last year of life and decedents' demographic and other attributes.
We observed marked variation in the mean and median PPPM expenditures, with the highest mean and median incurred by beneficiaries in the youngest age groups.
Those enrolling in Medicaid as they neared death incurred markedly lower median PPPM expenditures than those enrolled for longer periods of time.
At average PPPM expenditures of $1,735 for dually eligible disabled persons under age 65, and 82,053 for dually eligible elderly beneficiaries, both have high public expenditures because they use a large amount of LTC.
Already the dominant group (relative to adults with disabilities) in terms of number of beneficiaries, total public expenditures, average PPPM public expenditures, and use of institutional LTC, dually eligible elderly beneficiaries will place severe pressure on both the Medicare and Medicaid programs as the number of elderly people continues to grow.