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Activation of PPAR[gamma] could directly regulate miRNA-122 by binding to the PPRE in the promoter region and inhibit myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) expression, an important biomarker of CM (Figure 3) .
The region for binding with DNA (DBD) or C domain binds to the peroxisome proliferation response element (PPRE) in the promoter region of target genes.
Antioxidative function of PPAR[gamma] was also reported to be mediated by transcriptional activation of a number of several antioxidant genes such as HO-1, CAT, GPX-3, and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) through its direct association with PPREs of their promoter regions [48, 49, 63].
To complete this scenario, heterodimerization of PPARs with the RXR is required for binding to specific response elements termed: Peroxisome Proliferator Response Element (PPRE) at promoter region of target genes.
The peroxisome proliferator (PP) response element (PPRE) upstream of the human acyl CoA oxidase gene is inactive in a sample human population: significance for species differences in response to PPs.
Focusing on only the Democrats, PPRES and #BILLS are significant at the .05 level for two-tailed tests, with the party of the president having an unanticipated sign.
They are composed of 4 main functional domains: the A/B domain that contains the activation function-1 motif, a target of phosphorylation kinase, the C domain, a DNA binding domain that functions as a binding site for PPREs, the D domain, a hinge domain functioning as the docking site for cofactors, and the E/F domain, a ligand-binding domain that functions as a binding site for specific ligands, activating PPARs and promoting target gene expression (Figure 4) .
Caption: Figure 3: Schematic overview of the relationship between PPAR-response elements (PPREs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1[alpha]) in cardiac remodelling.
The pleiotropic effects of peroxisome proliferators are dependent on the existence of functional PPARs and PPREs in the promoter regions of genes regulated by these agents.
PPARs act as transcription factors and regulate the expression of dependent genes by binding to their PPREs. A significant number of genes regulated by PPARs have been described; however, the list is not exhaustive and is constantly being updated as new results are being published from both experimental data and bioinformatics analyses of promoter regions and PPRE consensus sequences.
When activated, PPAR[gamma] heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR), binds to specific response elements (PPREs), and promotes the expression of target genes .
The high level of expression of Plac1 in MMTV-PPAR[delta] mice also suggests that Plac1 may be under the transcriptional control of PPAR[delta] as demonstrated by its dependence on the PPAR[delta] coactivators CEBPA and CEBPB  and the presence of PPREs in the promoter regions of mouse and human Placl (http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pRgeneThLAC1 &key words=plac1).
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