While this clause in the VRA did not explicitly endorse the use of languages other than English in elections, it was a response to an earlier lawsuit raised by Puerto Ricans to vote in Spanish, and it created opportunities for legal challenges to language discrimination at the ballot box with the formation of organizations like the National Association of Puerto Rican Civil Rights in 1965 and PRLDEF
in 1972 (Thomas 2010: 217).
(28.) Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund (hereafter PRLDEF
), "Memorandum in Opposition to Defendants' Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings," February 18, 1975, p.
HIGH SCHOOL INITIATIVE: PROOF THAT ANYONE CAN DO SOMETHING
As one who has attended meetings of almost all of the organizations Skerry lambastes (NAACP, MALDEF, PRLDEF
), I can say with some confidence that the adjustment issue, while getting a fair amount of time in discussion, never constitutes more than one panel in a conference of six or seven panels (and usually is taken care of by one speaker on one panel).
Fifteen years later, a new analysis of Puerto Rican New Yorkers reached opposite conclusions: "the employment of the female head-of-household," one important study explained, "is the only viable mechanism for lifting the family above the poverty line." Lynn Angel Morgan, "Access to Training Programs: Barriers Encountered by Hispanic Female Heads-of-Households in New York City" (New York: PRLDEF
, 1981), 3, in Administrative Division Records, box 8, Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York.
We found this to be the case, and soon, we were joined by the following civil rights organizations and national bar associations of color: Asian Americans Advancing Justice; Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund; Hispanic National Bar Association; LatinoJustice PRLDEF
; National Bar Association; National Asian Pacific American Bar Association; National Native American Bar Association; and South Asian Bar Association of North America.
He previously served on the ethnic advisory board for PepsiCo and the consumer advisory board for Verizon Communications and has been a board member of leading minority advocacy groups such as Latino justice PRLDEF
(formerly the Puerto Rican Legal Defense & Education Fund), the National Council of La Raza and Dominicans on Wall Street.
Education Fund (MALDEF and PRLDEF
), counterparts to the NAACP LDF,
Special thanks to Juan Cartagena, President of Latino Justice PRLDEF
(formerly with the Community Service Society) for comments on drafts of this article.
cited polling places that could not provide bilingual ballots and had no bilingual poll workers to offer assistance, as required by the Voting Rights Act in precincts with large minority populations.
Coordinator, Engagement Network & New Media, Latino Justice PRLDEF
Angelo Falcon is senior policy executive with the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund (PRLDEF
) in New York City.