takes into account gender, age, serum HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, smoking status, diabetes, family history of coronary heart disease and systolic blood pressure.
risk score system was used as a classical schematic model, a model adapted for computer called Cox proportional hazards model, and PROCAM
To identify studies that evaluate prediction models among Hispanic populations in the United States, the search criteria were applied to the same three databases for the identical time period using the following: (1) Cardiovascular (cardiovascular disease or myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease or angina or atherosclerosis), and (2) the MeSH term "Hispanic Americans," as well as Hispanic ethnicity words (Latino or Hispanic or Mexican American or Puerto Rican American or Dominican American or Cuban American), and (3) Prediction rules (Framingham risk score or PROCAM
or Reynolds score).
Relation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides to incidence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (The PROCAM
In the reviewed studies, bariatric surgery reduced the relative risk for cardiovascular events by 18% to 79% using the Framingham score and by 8% to 62% using the PROCAM
Fibrinogen and Factor VII in the prediction of coronary risks: results from the PROCAM
study in healthy men.
Overall, the mixture of 4 g EPA+DHA and 2 g GLA (2:1 ratio) provided the greatest reduction, 43%, in the 10-year myocardial infarction risk as measured by the PROCAM
program (which takes into account LDL, HDL, and triglyceride concentrations).
PER SERVING (1/2 cup) Calories: 120 Sodium: 50 mg Total Fat; 3 g Cholesterol; 0 mg Sat Fat: 0 g /Trans Fat: 0 g Carbohydrates: 20 g Fiber: 4 g Protein: 3 g Drop after 6 weeks on each diet Higher- Starting Higher- Higher- Unsaturated- Level Carb Protein Fat Systolic Blood Pressure People with 147 -13 -16 -16 hypertension (140-159) People with 128 -7 -8 -8 prehypertension (120-139) LDL ("bad") cholesterol People with elevated 157 -20 -24 -22 LDL (130 or higher) People without 105 -4 -6 -5 elevated LDL (below 130) HDL ("good") cholesterol 50 -1 -3 0 Triglycerides 102 0 -16 -9 Estimated 10-year risk -20% -30% -30% of heart disease * * Based on Framingham Risk Score (for women) and PROCAM
Another CVD risk assessment tool, the PROCAM
equation, was applied.
The assessment uses the PROCAM
(Prospective Cardiovascular Muenster study) Risk Calculator, developed after 25 years of research on 30,000 residents of Muenster, Germany.
To estimate the influence of changes in the distribution of risk factors -- such as systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking -- upon trends in coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality, we used regression coefficients from three cohort studies: the German cohort studies PROCAM
(Prospective Cardiovascular Munster Study) and GRIPS (Gottingen Risk, Incidence, and Prevalence Study) and the Framingham Study.
Current data from the Helsinki Heart Study and the PROCAM
study indicate that elevated triglyceride concentrations may also contribute to risk assessment and hence should be considered in making therapeutic decisions.