Data on whether a firm has applied for a patent is available from PSED2.
Each PSED2 respondent was asked if research and development (R&D) expenditure will be a major priority for the new business.
While information on foreign work experience is absent from the PSED2, we include a binary variable indicating that the respondent was born in a foreign country in our analysis, with one indicating that the respondent is foreign born, and zero otherwise.
While many papers on innovation and export-orientation have focused on a particular industry, the PSED2 survey methodology incorporates ventures across the sectors of the U.S.
Our analysis exploited a unique trait of PSED2 data that provides ordinal data on the geographical range of firm-level market participation.