Diagnosis of PSGN is made with evidence of streptococcal infection either by documented culture or antibody titers in the presence of acute nephritis.
The patient in the previously reported that pediatric case of PSGN related DAH also required treatment in the intensive care unit and was similarly treated with corticosteroids for a brief period .
Prognosis for pediatric patients following PSGN is good.
Presented above is a case of a 4-year-old in significant distress due to DAH resulting from PSGN. This presentation is rare and has been described in only one other instance in a child.
After obtaining IRB approval (IRB09-00444), children seen with PSGN at Nationwide Children's Hospital (NCH) in Columbus, Ohio, between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2011, were identified.
A previous pediatric study of 153 children with PSGN reported that more than 50% of patients had hemoglobin [less than or equal to] 11g/dL .
Over the last 40 years in the United States, an apparent decline in the incidence of PSGN is assumed to be due to the near eradication of streptococcal pyoderma due to improved hygiene and/or decreased prevalence of skin infection associated nephritogenic M serotypes .
Certain factors have been associated with susceptibility to and severity of PSGN. For instance, low birth weights and high BMIs were reported to be associated with increased albuminuria in the Australian aboriginal population which experiences high rates of PSGN .