The decrease in this ratio indicates a reduction in the photochemical efficiency of PSII
(Silva et al., 2015).
Nitrogen deficiency also leads to degradation of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, the key enzyme in photosynthetic Calvin cycle, which concurs with a decline in the efficiency of PSII
photochemical activity (13,32).
The maximum quantum efficiency of PSII
([F.sub.v]/[F.sub.m]) and PSII
operating efficiency [([F'.sub.m]-F')/[F'.sub.m]] are important parameters for evaluating photosynthetic performance (Maxwell & Johnson, 2000; Oxborough, 2004), and which decreased in gall tissues of E.
In this clade, increasing [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] and 07 levels inside the algal cells must have led to a buildup of triplet chlorophyll in PSII
that was not counteracted by antioxidants (Lesser, 2006).
Yamamoto et al., "Knockdown of the PsbP protein does not prevent assembly of the dimeric PSII
core complex but impairs accumulation of photosystem II supercomplexes in tobacco," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)--Bioenergetics, vol.
Electron transport membrane system and Photosystem II (PSII
) activity impaired in plants by the salt stress (Ashraf and Ashraf, 2012; Kanwal et al., 2013).
The absorption flux (of antenna Chi) per RC (Reaction centre) ([Q.sub.A]--reducing PSII
reaction center) (ABS/RC), trapping flux per RC (leading to [Q.sub.A.sup.-] reduction) ([TR.sub.0]/RC) and electron transport flux (further than [Q.sub.A]-) per RC (E[T.sub.0]/RC) were not significantly affected by flooding for any of the genotypes (Figure 1).
Below, evidence will be provided that in combination with the PSII
process some of the sputtered metal atoms are ionized by the plasma and can thus be implanted into the substrate.
And overexpressing chloroplast APX in cotton has conferred higher photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII
) and stronger antioxidant capacity to transgenic plants .
Moreover, it is known that fluoride can affect the operation of photosystem II (PSII
) inhibiting the electron transport rates on it (Singh-Rawal et al., 2010).
At the physiological level, the measurement of [F.sub.v]/[F.sub.m] is an effective parameter to monitor the efficiency of light utilization by the algae as well as to assess the efficiency and stability of the photosystem II (PSII
), a major component of the photosynthetic machinery .