Abbreviations ABS absolutive ADVLZR adverbializer APP applicative ART article BLC Basic Locative Construction BLF Basic Locative Function CONJ conjunction COP copula DET determiner DETR detransitive DIM diminutive EMPH emphatic EQU equative F feminine FOC focus HAB habitual INESS inessive LOC locative MED medial N neuter NEG negative NF nonfuture NMZR nominalizer ORIENT orientativePERF PERF perfect PL plural PN pronoun PP postposition PRES present PROG progressive PRSUP presuppositional marker PSPV
Picture Series for Positional Verbs (Ameka et al.
In the description of many of the PSPV
pictures the morphological causative is used to express a state that is interpreted as having been brought about by some absent and therefore backgrounded agent.
Thus, 7 out of 8 speakers used stehen for the configuration depicted in PSPV 12 (a vase-shaped clay pot upside down on a tree trunk), i.
For example, in order to complement the data elicited with the PSPV tool, we tested the configuration of a plate placed on top of a cup.
The effect of a noncanonical Ground also accounts for the variation in the responses to PSPV Stimuli 48 and 29.
Even for the upright bottle in a rather large basket depicted in PSPV 62, one speaker (out of 8) used liegen and not stehen, although an upright bottle on a table would invariably elicit stehen.
In case of the stimulus PSPV 12, a vase-like clay pot standing upside down on a tree stump, three out of four speakers used PRV-zun 'it lies', and only one used PRV-dgun 'it stands'.
PRV-zun 'it lies' is in complementary distribution with PRV-dgun 'it stands' for Figures conceptualized as having a base but not being placed on it, such as the bottles in the stimuli PSPV 22 (bottle in a basket), 26 (bottle balancing on a stone), 52 (bottles lying on a table), 60 (several bottles jammed into a basket), and 67 (a bottle put upside down into a basket) or the pot in PSPV 40 (a clay pot lying beneath a tree stump).
7) are found for configurations such as in PSPV 30 (a tablecloth covering a table) since the tablecloth covers the table top completely.
In fact speakers rejected the verb labe 'lie' for inanimate Figures that are clearly in an elongated horizontal position, that is, entities that are clearly "lying" on a surface such as 'pen on desk' (TRPS 59), one or more tubers of cassava lying on tree stump (PSPV 23, PSPV 43), one 'bottle lying on a rock' (PSPV 26) or on a table (PSPV 37) or several bottles (7) all lying on a table (PSPV 52), a stick lying across a table (PSPV 17) or across a basket (PSPV 43).
As suggested earlier this seems to be the motivation for the localization of the Figures in PSPV 46, three bottles standing and four lying on a table as shown in example (2a), repeated here for convenience.
In fact, in generating utterances elicited with the picture stimulus in PSPV 59 where a strip of cloth is thrown into a tree--one part is suspended from a branch and another part goes over the branch before dangling down from it, both verbs are used, as illustrated in (44).