The following are examples of some original TOPS items and their corresponding PTOPS items.
Specifically, the measures used in the study included the PTOPS and the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (Behar & Stringfield, 1974), both of which were completed by the treatment center's teachers/therapists.
The PTOPS is a 60-item paper and pencil questionnaire used to assess children's responses to problematic social situations.
The PTOPS is intended to be a tool for both prevention and intervention efforts.
The children's teachers/therapists at the treatment center completed the PTOPS and PBQ measures.
To test for internal reliability, Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the eight PTOPS subscales.
To determine the convergent validity of the PTOPS measure, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between the PTOPS subscales and the subscales of the PBQ and the CBCL/2-3.
There was no evidence of convergence of the PTOPS and CBCL/2-3 measures.
The findings of the present study provide some support for the use of the PTOPS as a measure of preschool-aged children's social behaviors.
It is important to note that while the PTOPS subscales were significantly correlated with all three PBQ subscales, they were correlated with none of the CBCL/2-3 subscales.
Another possible explanation for why there was convergence of the PTOPS and PBQ, but not the PTOPS and CBCL/2-3, may be related to the target children's ages.
Specifically, the PTOPS (a) is convergent with subscales of another measure of preschoolers' social behavior, (b) is internally consistent, (c) identifies specific social situations that may be particularly problematic for some preschoolers, and (d) is relatively easy for practitioners to administer and score, and therefore offers the potential to be a very valuable clinical tool for purposes of social skills intervention.