PUNRPartidul Unitatii Nationale Romane (Romanian)
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Calculated OPP (party performance) and average PSS (party switcher score) for the relevant political parties in Romania Rank Political party OPP avgPSS 1 FDSN/PSDR/PDSR/PSD 2.295 1.654 2 PNL 1.571 1.267 3 FSN/PD/PD-L/PMP 1.745 0.917 4 PUR/PC 0.583 0.894 5 ALDE 1.750 0.705 6 PRM 0.552 0.687 7 PUNR 0.875 0.415 8 UNPR 1.667 0.303 9 PNTCD/PNT 1.233 0.303 10 PP-DD 0.800 0.277 11 PAC 0.571 0.147 12 PER 0.241 0.081 13 PDAR 0.375 0.012 14 UDMR 1.241 0.000 15 USR 0.750 0.000 Note: Data is sorted by highest avgPSS.
Another rather powerful force was the ethnic axis, also including two political parties, the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR) and the Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR).
The main types of dividing lines manifesting in Romania in 1992 were ideological, between the left and the right (which manifested rather more like a rupture between the ones who had won and the ones who had lost as a result of the political change), ethnic (visible especially in Transylvania, due to the strong antagonism between PUNR and UDMR), regional (which differentiated between Moldova and Muntenia, who had voted for FDSN and Bucharest and Transylvania, where CDR had won) and rural urban (Ion Iliescu had won 54% of the votes in the rural areas and only 36% in the large cities, while Emil Constantinescu was the favorite in the large cities, where he had obtained 42% of the votes, in contrast to the 24% gained in the rural area) (Ghebrea, 2007: 260).
Of the most important political parties, that have infiltrated in the new political structures after '89, contributing to strengthening of democracy, we can highlight: National Salvation Front (FSN)the one who assumed power directly from the Communist Party, then splitting in the Democratic Party (PD) and the Social Democracy Party of Romania (PDSR), afterwards named the Social Democratic Party (PSD), the Party Of National Unity (PUNR), Romania Mare Party (PRM), Socialist Party of labor (PSM), The Democratic Agrarian Party of Romania (PDAR).
With regards to the situation of other parties that I intend to analyse 'PUNR' respectively PDAR, the numerical wheighting of the nomenclature in the new political structures was lower: from 12% (1992), following a decrease of up to 9 per cent (only 3% in 1996), in what concerns PUNR, while PDAR, said Raluca Grosescu represented "the political voice of socialist technocracy".
With parliamentary support from the nationalist PUNR and PRM parties, and the ex-communist PSM party, a technocratic government was formed in November 1992 under Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu, an economist.
On 20 January 1995, after difficult negotiations, PDSR (led by Ion Iliescu), PUNR (National Humanistic Party), PRM (Great Romania Party) and PSM (Socialist Worker's Party) signed a protocol of political cooperation, which was called the "Red quadrilateral".
Other political parties include National Democratic Christian Peasant Party (PNTCD), the Party of the Romanian National Unity (PUNR), as well as political organizations of minorities.