We also noted that whenever there is PVAT deposition in the adventitia, inflammatory cells are also present.
Note the presence of infiltratory cells along the aortic wall (arrow) and deposition of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in the tunica adventitia of (b) OVX.
Aside from systematic effects, adipose tissue may have crucial local actions in AS due to unique types of adipose tissue, namely, PVAT. Both visceral adipose tissue and PVAT are mainly made up of white adipose tissue, which is more relevant to metabolic syndrome.
Abbreviations AS: Atherosclerosis AMPK: 5'-Monophosphate-activated protein kinase BMI: Body mean index CVDs: Cardiovascular diseases cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate FFAs: Free fatty acids HSL: Hormone-sensitive lipase IL: Interleukin IFN: Interferon LDL: Low-dense lipoprotein nAChRs: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors NF-[kappa]B: Nuclear factor-kappa B PPAR-[gamma]: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-y PVAT: Perivascular adipose tissue ROS: Reactive oxygen species TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4 TNF: Tumor necrosis factor VSMCs: Vascular smooth muscle cells.
NW: Normal weight individuals OW&OB: Overweight and obese individuals NO: Nitric oxide ROS: Reactive oxygen species BMI: Body mass index 6MWT: 6-Minute walking test IL-1ra: Interleukin-1ra IL-1[beta]: Interleukin-1[beta] IL-6: Interleukin-6 IL-8: Interleukin-8 IL-10: Interleukin-10 TNF-[alpha]: Tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] MCP-1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 CRP: C-reactive protein FMD: Flow-mediated dilation BF: Blood flow 1RM: 1 repetition maximum ET-1: Endothelin-1 PVAT
: Perivascular adipose tissue.
In obese and type II diabetics, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of PVAT
, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and increasing of the production of ROS, all of which lead to endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertension .
Dechandt et al., "Increased mitochondrial ROS generation mediates the loss of PVAT
anticontractile effect in HFD-treated obese mice," British Journal of Pharmacology, 2016, Epub ahead of print.
In this article, we report the effects of darapladib on lipid profile, Ox-LDL level, number of foam cells, and PVAT
thickness in Sprague--Dawley rats that were given high-fat diet.
In the 2nd and 3rd phases of the experiment, a 5.4% increase in PVAT
, in comparison to baseline values was registered (280.4 vs.
As can be seen from the PVAT
plot for the apoB/A test (Fig.
Thus, this review will shed light on different cells, including endothelial cells (ECs), SMCs, fibroblasts, and adipocytes from the tunica intima, media, adventitia, and PVAT
and their related cytokines, and elucidate how these cells contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (Figure 1).
Therefore, although VAT may be the main source contributing to circulating levels of visfatin/Nampt, we cannot ignore the impact of visfatin/Nampt from other adipose depots such as PVAT
or EF that can act in a paracrine manner in the CV system.