PWEPPortland Wind Energy Project (Australia)
PWEPPair-Wise Error Probability
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The PWEP, formulated as a scientific experiment, was designed to test five major hypotheses: (1) Do customers exhibit similar price responsiveness (as measured by elasticities of substitution) to the CPP, PTR and TOU tariffs?
Section 2 of this paper describes the experimental design of the PWEP. Section 3 summarizes the analytical methods and data used in the estimation of the load impacts.
During the PWEP period, the control group customers paid the standard rate which, on an all-in basis, amounts to $0.201/kWh for residential customers and $0.203/kWh for small C&I customers.
Under the Peak Time Rebate (PTR) rate design, the PWEP participants were still subject to the standard CL&P rates.
The PWEP program also tested the effectiveness of enabling technologies in facilitating demand response when offered in conjunction with dynamic rates.
The PWEP involved four types of technologies: In-Home Displays, Energy Orb, Smart Thermostat and a Control Switch to cycle the CAC compressor.
The PWEP featured 1,251 residential customers of which 1,114 customers were the program participants and constituted the treatment group while 137 customers constituted the control group.
It is important to note that the control group customers were not aware of their involvement in the PWEP. These customers were intended to serve as a proxy for the behavior of the treatment group customers and to help define conditions in the "but-for" world.
This "recruit and deny" design may be judged to be superior to the PWEP design in terms of internal validity since it ensures that the treatment and control groups customers are matched not only in terms of observable characteristics but also the unobservable characteristics.
We used the demand models to estimate the demand response impacts of each PWEP pricing option, as opposed to alternative methods such as the analysis of variance and covariance because they allow for the estimation of demand curves and price elasticities.
In order to quantify the load impacts from the PWEP, we determined the "average CPP event day weather" to be used in the calculation of the price elasticities.
Table 5 reports the estimated substitution and daily price elasticities for the PWEP residential customers.