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In PWHA, the sensitivity of microscopic examination is low, approximately 40% (5-7).
PWHA are more likely to develop TB disease because of their immunodeficiency; HIV infection is the most powerful risk factor for progressing from TB infection to disease (4).
TB disease and death can be prevented in PWHA by early TB diagnosis and effective treatment of both diseases.
They found that living in a rural area resulted in felt stigma that persisted over time but that living in an urban was a predictor of change in the experience of felt stigma among PWHA. The team also found gender differences in terms of the presence of felt stigma, with lower levels being found in women.
Various studies have indicated that some PWHA are cautious about taking their medication in front of others, to prevent the possibility of their HIV status becoming public knowledge (46, 47).
A study from Johnson et al (60) provides evidence that treatment adherence is directly affected by stigma; the study reported on 968 PWHA who had either discontinued or never initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART).
We have asked PWHA to make a calendar of women activities including camps, tournaments etc so that the PHF can support them in each and every step for the women game development, he said.
Punjab Women Hockey Association (PWHA) also lauded the Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) for doing all-out efforts for the promotion of women players in the country.
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