Numerous studies have found evidence of students of color reporting greater stress and threat at PWIs
. For example, Smedley, Myers, & Harrell (1993) surveyed over 1,000 first-year students of color, as well as 300 White first-year students enrolled at a PWI
, and found that African-American students reported significantly more stress than their peers.
. Alcorn State University, and HBCU in Lorman, Mississippi, saw
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have proven to provide generally positive social and psychological environments that foster enhanced student engagement for Black college students, despite the fact that they are generally financially poorer than PWIs
(Chen, Ingram, & Davis, 2014; Harper, Carini, Bridges, & Hayek, 2004).
Anissa is one of sixteen students who participated in the qualitative study of the experiences of Black women in honors at two urban PWIs
. While the literature on students in collegiate honors programs characterizes them as high-achieving or gifted, the reflections of the women in this study on their own identities indicate that some of the labels for their academic identity are not how they would define themselves.
The BCM began slowly as students at HBCUs and PWIs
gained inspiration from both the civil rights movement and the Black power movement.
According to Harley (2008), many Black women at PWIs
suffer from Race Fatigue Syndrome--a phenomenon in which Black women felt undervalued, used, and unappreciated.
For students of color attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs
), this racial reality means navigating and negotiating daily experiences of White institutional exclusion, hypervisibility or invisibility (Kwan, 2015; Sleeter, 2017; Smith, Yosso, & Solorzano, 2006), and other forms of racial inequity (DePouw, 2012; Smith, Yosso, & Solorzano, 2006; Xiong, 2012) while also concentrating on the more mundane aspects of successfully completing a university degree program (Minikel-Lacocque, 2013).
As a teacher educator, I was tasked with teaching a course in multicultural education in the first year that it became a departmental requirement--quite controversial in a midwestern PWI
, especially for an untenured faculty member.
Next, we analyze the published areas of focus for #BlackLivesMatters in an effort to demonstrate how the modern-day hash tag movement is one of the most important tools for resurrecting Black Studies programs across the country, especially at PWIs
. A discussion of the data and methods we used to answer the aforementioned research questions follows, along with the findings of our study about the impact of #BlackLivesMatters on Black students at a PWI
in the southeast region of the United States, where the fatal police shooting of a Black male occurred, inciting days of protests.
across the country, White fragility or White students' intolerance for data-driven challenges to the naive and racist ideologies in which their experiences are grounded emboldens White students to undermine and usurp Black scholars who speak truth inside and outside the classroom (DiAngelo, 2011).
This suggests that the ongoing stereotype of cognitive inferiority, albeit implicit or explicit, is often ascribed to Black students by faculty at predominantly White institutions (PWIs
As shown in Table 1, 13 of the top 20 baccalaureate-origin institutions are HBCUs, and seven are predominantly white institutions (PWIs