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LV mass was calculated by using the following formula: LV mass = 0.8 x {1.04[[(LVID + PWTh + IVSTh).sup.3] - [LVID.sup.3]]} + 0.6.
AGES: Advanced glycation end-products DCM: Diabetic cardiomyopathy DHE: Dihydroethidium EF: Ejection fraction GAPDH: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase HE: Hematoxylin and eosin HF: Heart failure IL-1[beta]: Interleukin 1[beta] IL-6: Interleukin 6 INT: Interstitium IVSTh: Interventricular septum thickness LV: Left ventricle LVID: Left ventricular end-diastolic internal dimension LVIS: Left ventricular end-systolic internal dimension MCP-1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 PWTh: Posterior wall thickness RAGE: Receptor of advanced glycation end-products ROS: Reactive oxygen species SEN: Subendocardium SF: Shortening fraction TNF-[alpha]: Tumor necrosis factor-[alpha].
These studies found the risk assessment based on posterior wall tensile hoop strain (PWTHS) and vertebral body trabecular bone pore pressure (POR), which have demonstrated correlation to vertebral bulge and load induced canal narrowing.