The median numbers of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes
removed were 20.48[+ or -]9.4 (range, 10-46) and 10.55[+ or -]6 (range, 6-23), respectively.
In particular, para-aortic lymph nodes
have received attention as they are considered "extraregional." A meta-analysis by Paiella et al.
CT: computed tomography, RF: radiation field, GTV: gross tumor volume, CTV: clinical target volume, Ao: aorta, IVC: inferior vena cava, Kid: right kidney, ob: obturator lymph node, ci: left common iliac lymph node, and pa: para-aortic lymph node
Reynolds, "Pre-treatment surgical para-aortic lymph node
assessment in locally advanced cervical cancer," Cochrane database of systematic reviews, vol.
Questionable is the choice of performed routine sampling or lymphadenectomy of para-aortic lymph nodes
that occurs in approximately 19% of patients with pT2-pT3 GBC .
Remarkably, transthoracic echocardiography and PET/CT performed 9 weeks after her initial diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma revealed complete resolution of the right ventricular mass, pleural effusions, as well as adrenal nodule, and mediastinal and para-aortic lymph nodes
Azuma et al., "Ultrastaging of para-aortic lymph nodes
in stage IIIC1 endometrial cancer: a preliminary report," Gynecologic Oncology, vol.
A case report from Japan demonstrated that wide lymph node dissection with hemihepatectomy, including regional and para-aortic lymph nodes
, was found to be curative in the first 5-year survival of periductal-infiltrating advanced ICC with para-aortic lymph nodes
Initial CT scan showed an enlarged appendix and a partially exophytic, enhancing mass located in the upper pole of the left kidney with an enlarged para-aortic lymph node
Notably, the addition of para-aortic lymph node
dissection further increases the surgical morbidity.
Sonoda et al., "9Transperitoneal laparoscopic pelvic and para-aortic lymph node
dissection using the argon-beam coagulator and monopolar instruments: an 8-year study and description of technique," Gynecologic Oncology, vol.
There was no enlargement of the para-aortic lymph node
and the liver and kidneys were unremarkable.