They were ostensibly nominated by three parties which together held ten seats: Partai Demokrat with four; PPP (Partai Persatuan Pembagunan, Unity Development Party) with two; PKPI with four; and PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
, Prosperous Justice Party) which did not hold a seat in the city legislature.
Ahmad-Norma Permata's chapter, by far the longest in the book, is a detailed examination of the co-evolution of the Tarbiyah movement (Jamaah Tarbiyah, JT) and the party it spawned: the conservative Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
Permata's study (chapter 1) concerning the relation between the Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
(Justice and Welfare Party, PKS) and Jama'ah Tarbiyah, from which it arose, offers a fine description, explaining the contentions that exist when a religious movement gives birth to a political party.
The most prominent example is the Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
, PKS), which had initially participated in the 1999 election under the name Justice Party (Partai Keadilan, PK).
A 2004 Indonesian newspaper article classified Islamic parties into the following categories: orthodox Islamic parties, which included the Crescent Star Party (PBB, Partai Bulan Bintang); progressive Islamic parties, which included the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
); traditional Islamic parties, which included the Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party (PPNUI, Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia), the United Development Party (PPP, Partai Persatuan Pembangunan), and the Reform Star Party (PBR, Partai Bintang Reformasi); modernist Islamic parties, which included the National Mandate Party (PAN, Partai Amanat Nasional); and nationalist-religious parties including the National Awakening Party (PKB, Partai Kebangitan Bangsa).
However, in the 2004 general elections, the popularity of PAN in Kotagede declined with voters supporting parties such as the PDI-P, PPP, Golkar, and new comers such as the Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
, PKS) and the Democratic Party (Partai Demokrat, PD).
In the field of education after 1998 another powerful challenge came from Islamic schools opened by the Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
(Prosperous Justice Party, PKS) activists as 'full Islamic schools' or Islam Terpadu (IT).
4), with its supremacy primarily due to the uneven institutionalization of the other parties--with the exception of PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
or Prosperous Justice Party)--during the period of democratic transition since 1998.
The two new entries into the category of medium-sized parties were Partai Demokrat (PD, Democratic Party), which had been founded as Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's electoral vehicle in 2001, and PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
, Party of Justice and Prosperity), the successor to PK.
It should be noted that there were two new parties which emerged in the 2004 parliamentary elections, namely the Partai Demokrat (PD), which was controlled by Susilo Bambang Yuhdhoyono, the former security chief in the Megawati cabinet, and the Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
(PKS), an Islamic party which was based on the Partai Keadilan (PK).
In the end, all major parties, including Golkar, lost votes in 2004, while newcomers like the Democrats Party (Partai Demokrat, or PD) and the Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
, or PKS) enjoyed substantial gains.
Still other parties represented reworkings of parties that had tried in 1999, like the Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
(Prosperous Justice Party) which was the renamed Partai Keadilan (Justice Party).