(Horner et al., 2005) (2014) (1996) (2017) Participants/Setting Participant description
Yes Yes Yes Participant selection Yes Yes Yes Setting description Yes Yes Yes Dependent Variable Description Yes Yes Yes Quantifiable measurement Yes Yes Yes Valid and well described Yes Yes Yes Interobserver agreement Yes Yes Yes Independent Variable Description Yes Yes Yes Systemically manipulated Yes Yes Yes Fidelity of implementation Yes Yes Yes Baseline Repeated measure/pattern No Yes Yes Description Yes Yes Yes Experimental Control/ Internal Validity 3 demonstrations of effect Yes Yes Yes Internal validity Yes Yes Yes Experimental control Yes Yes Yes External Validity Replicated Yes Yes Yes Social Validity DV socially important Yes Yes Yes Change magnitude impt.
For Indicator 1 (i.e., participants and setting), interrater reliability was 95% overall; agreement for two of the components (i.e., participant description
and participant selection) was 100%, whereas agreement for the description of the setting was 86%.
If the focus is sight word reading and picture recognition, it is important that this participant description include current functioning in reading and communication.
For example, it seems essential that a participant description include information relevant to the dependent variable of focus.
(2005), this indicator contained three components: (a) participant description, (b) participant selection, and (c) setting description.
Results revealed that only 1 of the 12 studies reviewed met all three components (participant description, participant selection criteria, and setting description) constituting the quality indicator for describing participants and setting (Smith & Sugai, 2000; see Table 1).
Description Participant 1 Participant 2 Age (years) 37 49 Occupation Occupational nurse, Administrative administrative work officer Duration of 5 3 current employment (years) Computer work 20-32 36-40 (hours per week) History of upper 8 3 quadrant pain (years) Area of pain Left upper Right upper quadrant quadrant neck/ neck/shoulder shoulder/upper thoracic Table 4.
Participant descriptions of ideal home nursing care included competence in hands-on and technical skills, along with critical thinking skills, professionalism, and a get-going approach that allowed parents to feel safe leaving nurses in their home to care for their children* They focused not on nurses' educational preparation, but on technical and problem-solving skills needed to care for their children safely.
Participant descriptions of caring focused on activities that went beyond physical care of the child to include holistic care of the child and family.
These participant descriptions
of faith as the center of being reflect a profoundly holistic understanding of being reflect a profoundly holistic understanding of integration.
Feelings of self-doubt permeated participant descriptions
about learning to be a counselor.
Barylo describes her research as "anecdotal" though she has used surveys, focus groups, and participant descriptions
. She reports that not all the groups who participated in the forms improvement projects have as yet measured efficiency improvements between the old and new forms.