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References in periodicals archive ?
Bazant, "Pebble flow experiments for pebble bed reactors," in Proceeding of the 2th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology, p.
Numerical treatment of pebble contact in the flow and heat transfer analysis of a pebble bed reactor core, Nuclear Engineering and Design 237: 2183-2196.
The first pebble bed reactor began operation near Aachen, Germany in 1966 and ran successfully for 21 years, providing heat for a small steam power plant.
Chinese companies are pushing forward with advanced plant designs such as the above-mentioned pebble bed reactor. These plants are designed to shut down by themselves if something goes wrong rather than melt down.
In fact, Exelon, one of three US companies at the center of the fledgling pebble bed reactor industry and a former partner in the South African project, has been credibly accused of cutting corners on a much less exacting nuclear technology with far greater potential risk per individual failure.
In addition to Egypt's decision to restart its nuclear power programme, there has been some discussion of Morocco building a nuclear power reactor, while South African power company Eskom still hopes to develop a string of pebble bed reactors, so could nuclear have a place in the African generation mix of the future?
One potential solution for both needs is the NEREUS concept, a pebble bed reactor that bears a close technological resemblance to the South African PBMR.
credits the German physicist Rudolf Schulten, who died in 1996, as the father of the pebble bed reactor. He proposed the idea in 1956, when he joined Brown Boveri & Cie.
One example the report provides is "the gas-cooled, pebble bed reactor, which has inherent safety features." In fact, says Gunter, the pebble bed reactor is not new; it's just "old wine in a new bottle." It's a hybrid of the gas-cooled, high-temperature design that "has appeared and been rejected in England, Germany and the U.S." And far from being "inherently safe," a reactor of similar design, a THTR300 in Germany's Ruhr Valley, spewed out substantial amounts of radioactivity in a 1986 accident, leading to its permanent closure.
Faculty and students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, under the direction of Andrew Kadak, have been designing and promoting a version of the high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor.
The helium enters the pebble bed at 500[degrees]C and 9 Mpa, and is heated to about 900[degrees]C before it enters the turbine, then on to a recuperator, compressor, intercooler, recuperator, and then back into the pebble bed reactor, thus producing a nuclear-heated, Brayton thermodynamic closed cycle.