DAMPs: damage-associated molecular patterns; EPR stress: endoplasmic reticulum stress; HIF-1[alpha]: hypoxia inducible factor 1[alpha]; IRE-1[alpha]: inositol-requiring enzyme 1[alpha]; I[kappa]B: inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor [kappa]B; IKK: I[kappa]B kinase; IRS: insulin receptor substrate; mTORC2: mechanistic target of rapamycin; NF-[kappa]B: nuclear factor [kappa]B; PI-3K: phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
; PDK-1: phosphoinositide-dependent kinase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TLRs: toll-like receptors.
leucocephala fruit extract, expression levels of several genes, that is, protein kinases B (AKT), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases
(PI3KA), and sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (Srebp1) (Table 1), were investigated.
(PI3K)/Akt pathway represents another multifunctional signaling pathway that promotes cell survival under adverse conditions.
PKB/Akt is a downstream signal of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases
(PI-3-Kinases) pathway that is essential for adipogenesis.
These effects are associated with reduced endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity, which depends on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
(PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor K-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF[kappa]B) pathways (20).
Weingarten et al., "Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 promote mast cell survival via activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
pathway," Experimental Hematology, vol.
The team 'knocked it out of the park' by deep sequencing exceptionally rare familial cases and unrelated cases to identify the culprit pathway." The genes -- AKT3, PIK3R2 and PIK3CA -- all encode core components of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
(P13K)/AKT pathway, the "culprit pathway" referenced by Olson.
As signaling pathways of EGFR, the Ras/Raf/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway, the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
)/Akt pathway, and the Jak (Janus kinase)/ STAT (signal transducers and activator of transcription) pathway are all important.
Upregulated function of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
in genetically hypertensive rats:a moderator of arterial hypercontractility.
Copanlisib is a novel intravenous phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
(PI3K) inhibitor with inhibitory activity predominantly against the PI3K-alpha and PI3K-delta isoforms expressed in malignant B cells.
A recent study has revealed that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
(PI3K) signaling accounts for rimonabant-induced glucose uptake elevation in SM cells (11).
According to Bayer, an intravenous pan-class I phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase
inhibitor, copanlisib predominantly inhibits activities of specific isoforms.