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While empiric therapy is associated with the best cost-utility ratio, doing a culture yields the greatest utility at greater incremental cost per QALM. Many primary care physicians already treat UTIs empirically with antibiotics.
Using the outcome of cost per quality-adjusted life month ($/QALM), the most cost-effective strategy was empiric therapy (strategy 1) at $71.52 per QALM. This strategy is preferred over all others.
Each of these alternative decisions, while having greater effectiveness, have incremental costs of approximately $3000 per additional QALM, or $36,000 per additional QALY (with the exception of the dipstick urinalysis strategy, which has a marginal cost-effectiveness of $48,000 per additional QALM).
We also identified the following analytic outcomes: quality-adjusted life months (QALMs; on a scale of 0 to 1, the quality of life experienced by the patient over the 1-month period of the decision model); cost (from the payer's perspective); and cost per quality-adjusted life month ($/QALM).
KARACHI -- Pakistan Academy of Letters has advised poets to send their entries for selection of a song "Qalm Ka Geet" (song of the pen), which will be played in different literary conferences, to the Academy by June 30.
The entries are being invited only from Pakistan Nationality holder poets for preparation of song titled "Qalm Ka Geet", said an announcement on Friday.
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