QFFQQuantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire
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The validated QFFQ that was used in the Transition and Health during Urbanisation in South Africa (THUSA) study [14] was adapted and used in this study to examine usual dietary intake.
The QFFQ and 24 hour recall were analysed, with the assistance of a dietician, on the South African Medical Research Council FoodFinder[R] software program based on the South African food composition tables to establish the nutrient intake and top 20 most commonly consumed foods [15].
Both Table 1 and Table 2 indicate the top 20 food items consumed as measured by 24-hour recall and QFFQ, respectively.
Table 3 presents the mean dietary intake of nutrients obtained with the QFFQ and the 24-hour recall.
The final format of the QFFQ, corresponding to the three preceding months, comprised 106 food items divided into eleven groups, namely, dairy products, legumes, meat and eggs (with or without apparent fat), cereals and derivative products, pasta and snacks, sugar and sweets, fruits, green leaves, fats, spices and seasonings, and nonalcoholic beverages.
Relative validity was assessed by comparing QFFQ results to those of a reference method, the 24-hour recall (24hR).
Mean and standard deviation values for total energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients were determined for both QFFQ and the four 24hRs.
The nutrients under study were categorized in quartiles of intake in order to correlate the mean values of the QFFQ and those of the 24hR.
QFFQ is a comprehensive assessment instrument essential for measuring usual dietary intake.
We characterized the diet in Inuvialuit using a single 24-hour recall survey in one season, however, the pilot QFFQ study and our formative work included foods consumed throughout the year.
The QFFQ is culturally appropriate, up-to-date, and is currently being used to evaluate the nutritional intervention program and monitor nutrition transition in Inuvialuit.
Food and drink items listed on the QFFQ Category Food items Breads, Cereals (9) Bannock, fried, incl.