MQHOA-MMO includes just two nested iteration processes: QHO process and M process.
In QHO process, [[sigma].sub.s] = [[sigma].sub.s]/2 transforms the system from high energy state at scale [[sigma].sub.s] to ground state at scale [[sigma].sub.s]/2.
The QHO process at scale [[sigma].sub.s] will end until [DELTA][sigma] [less than or equal to] [[sigma].sub.s] in every dimension.
(20) The name, Miao as known today, is the name imposed upon the Ah Hmao, Hmong, Hmu and Qho Xiong by others.
When I visited the Qho Xiong in Western Hunan in February 2008, I was taken to visit many towns and at least two of them have museums that used to be the residences of the two so-called "Miao kings." One of them still has the portrait of the king, known by the name, Long Yuenkai, hanging on the wall of the Museum of the town of Shan Jiang.
After the visit, my host, a professor and a Qho Xiong himself, explained to me that there is officially no Miao king because there is no Miao Kingdom in China.
Since 1986, I have travelled officially and privately inside China seven times; I have also visited the Hmong in Yunnan, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Guizhou provinces; the A Hmao in Yunnan; the Hmu in Guizhou and the Qho
Xiong in Hunan, the Miao in Hainan, the Mongols in Inner Mongolia, the Uyghur6 in Western China.
Ruey published another book with Ling in Chinese which is an ethnography of the Xiangxi (western Hunan) Miao, or Qho
Xiong, in West Hunan.
Were they historically different or the same people who now call themselves by different names like Hmong, Qho
Xiong, Hmu and A Hmao?
Not only is the number of (H)mong in Lao PDR grossly exaggerated compared to actual censuses (231,168 in 1985; 315,465 in 1995), but a detailed account from the same 1990 Census in China, provided by Wang Fushi and Mao Zongwu (4), shows that the number of (H)mong in China at that time amounted at most to a mere 2.088 million; while the other Miao groups: A Hmao (300;000), Mhu (sometimes known as Hmu or Hmub)(2.1 million) and Qho Xiong (900,000) total only 3.3 million.
There were 100,000 A Hmao, 920,000 Mhu and 500,000 Qho Xiong.
The number of (H)mong has increased by 100%, of Qho Xiong by 80%, of Mhu by 110%, of A Hmao by 200% and the total number of Miao speaking a Miao language by 110%.