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According to the QLFS, South Africa has a working age population of 38.4 million, between the ages of 15 and 64.
After that, we design a controller using QLF. Choose [V.sub.1] = (1/2)([z.sup.2.sub.1] + [l.sup.2.sub.1]), and we can show that [[phi].sub.1] is a common virtual control for the first component of the system (22).
However, when the QLF is utilized with the same parameters and design processes, the output is more volatile than the BLF one, and the convergence rate is slower than the BLF method.
However, when the QLF is used with the same initial value, the state constraint is violated.
Comfort will doubtless be drawn from a recent QLFS which reports a fall in the official unemployment rate from 23.2 per cent in June-September 2008, to 21.9 per cent in October-December 2008, and an increase in the total number employed of 189,000 over the same period (Statistical Release P0210, 2 March 2009:vi).
Examination of the four sets of QLFS figures available at the time of writing amply justifies my claim that the surveys are a waste.
As the QLFS itself points out, most of the labour market changes it records cannot be taken at face value--of ten key indicators in the QLFS for October-December 2008, only three (total number employed, number of officially unemployed, and discouraged work-seekers) are statistically significant (P0211, 2 March 2009:v).
Taking the available (statistically insignificant) 2008 QLFS figures into account, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and finance all shed jobs.
The second data set we use is the autumn 1993 Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS).
Table 1 reports a set of descriptive statistics on training incidence and intensity from EMSPS and QLFS, broken down by union recognition status in all cases, and reported separately for manual and non-manual employees.
In the QLFS, where training intensity is defined as average hours of training received in the last week, intensity is also higher in the union sector, for both manuals and non-manuals.
In the individual-level QLFS equations of Table 2b, manual workers in unionized workplaces are about 1.6% more likely than their nonunion counterparts to have received training in the four weeks preceding the survey, and non-manual workers about 5.1% more likely.
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