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Likewise, the use of nonfinancial measures is greater in quality-oriented firms (QLTY), consistent with previous research (Ittner et al.
Quality (QLTY) is a dummy variable that takes on the value of 1 if the firm has won or been a finalist in a major quality award competition, and 0 otherwise.
where USE_NFM reflects whether a firm uses nonfinancial measures in its measurement systems as proxied by NFM; FIRM_CHARACTERISTICS are variables that determine the use of nonfinancial measures (PROS, QLTY, DIST, FN_CORR, DCYCLE, LCYCLE, REG); PERFORMANCE is the firm's current (RO[A.sub.it], and RE[T.sub.it],) and future (RO[A.sub.it+1] and RE[T.sub.it+1]) economic performance; MISMATCH_NFM are the residuals from equation (2) reflecting the extent of misfit between the use of nonfinancial measures and firm characteristics; and PERFORMANCE_CONTROLS are the covariates for performance discussed earlier.