In this study, based on the patterns of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and/or resistance to ciprofloxacin with associated susceptibility to nalidixic acid, the presence of ESBL-type and qnr
genes was suggested in the Salmonella strains.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Qnr
Gene, Pentapeptide Repeat Protein, Fluoroquinolone, Antibiotic Resistance
maltophilia genome sequence (R551-3) also identified a novel family of genes (smqnr) that encode proteins with homology to the Qnr
quinolone protection proteins found in the Enterobacteriaceae (5).
= [(1 - [D.sub.[lambda]]).sup.[alpha]] [(1 - [D.sub.s]).sup.[beta]]
PCR for qnr
genes was negative indicating that fluoroquinolone resistance was probably due to other mechanism such as mutations in gyrA or parC genes.
proteins protect DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from the inhibitory activity of quinolones .
Molecular investigations presented that the presence of certain antibiotic resistance genes including the genes that encode resistance against beta-lactams (blaSHV, CITM), quinolones (qnr
), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), trimethoprim (dfrA1), gentamicin (aac(3)-IV), chloramphenicol (cat1 and cmlA), sulfonamide (sul1), and streptomycin (aadAl) is the most significant reason for occurrence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains [1-15].
The following equation indicates how the NR consumption (qNR
) in period 1 is estimated based on total consumption (qT) in period 1, NR consumption in period 0, the price shift (e.g., for SW lumber or structural panels) between period 0 and period 1, the demand elasticities for total demand ([[epsilon].sub.T]) and NR demand ([[epsilon].sub.NR]), an exogenous shift (s) to increase total demand (compared with the baseline scenario), endogenous shifts in total demand from GDP (A), and shifts caused by both GDP and housing (B):
Since then, plasmids harboring qnr
genes have been found in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae worldwide.