Improvement of mitochondrial NAD(+)/FAD(+)-linked state-3 respiration by caffeine attenuates quinolinic acid
induced motor impairment in rats: implications in Huntington's disease.
The induction of IDO and TDO leads to increased concentration of kynurenine pathway metabolites, mostly kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid
Short-term lithium treatment promotes neuronal survival and proliferation in rat striatum infused with quinolinic acid
, an excitotoxic model of Huntington's disease.
, a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, can induce the expression of several proinﬂammatory cytokines and chemokines.
They found that suicide attempters had more than twice as much quinolinic acid
in their spinal fluid as the healthy people, which indicated increased glutamate signaling between nerve cells.
Chronic quinolinic acid
lesions in rats closely resemble Huntington's disease.
Within tryptophan catabolism, the kynurenine pathway works to form quinolinic acid
Kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid
act at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the rat hippocampus.
Some neurologists surmise that HIV destroys nerve cells indirectly by prompting the overproduction of a brain chemical called quinolinic acid
, which can cause toxic effects at high levels (SN: 3/7/92, p.
Earlier studies by these and other scientists showed that when quinolinic acid
was injected into the brains of rats, it damaged only the same types of neurons as those in humans with HD.
Activation of certain cytokines (such as IL-6, IFN-y[gamma], TNF-[alpha], and LPS) can lead to activation of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), which shunts tryptophan down the kynurenine and quinolinic acid
pathways, resulting in suboptimal serotonin levels.