Specifically, under C- and O-shaped topologies, RARL and 4-nearest Anchor algorithms almost have a constant performance with an insignificant deviation between them.
DV-Hop, 4-nearest Anchor, and RARL algorithms utilize average hop length which is calculated in an entire network (equation (1)) to estimate a distance between an anchor and a normal node.
And RARL and 4-Nearest Anchor algorithms have come at the top of the proposed algorithm, respectively.
As shown at table 1, almost having the same values, proposed algorithm, 4- Nearest-Anchor and DV-Hop algorithms show the largest localization success ratio while RARL algorithm shows the lowest.
The reasons beside the results observed in Table 1 are the minimum requirements to estimate an unknown position of the four algorithms which are as follows: 1) DV- Hop and proposed algorithm: a normal node needs three anchors, 2) 4- Nearest Anchor: a normal node needs four anchors, 3) RARL algorithm: a normal node needs three anchor which must include itself in a triangle formed by them.