On the other hand, the RARL algorithm considers the A2N distance estimation accuracy and the geometric shape formed by the anchors unlike the 4-Nearest Anchor, thus it shows stable and lower localization error than DV-Hop and 4 Nearest Anchor.
RARL algorithm differs from the proposed algorithm in three ways.
Specifically, under C- and O-shaped topologies, RARL and 4-nearest Anchor algorithms almost have a constant performance with an insignificant deviation between them.
DV-Hop, 4-nearest Anchor, and RARL algorithms utilize average hop length which is calculated in an entire network (equation (1)) to estimate a distance between an anchor and a normal node.
And RARL and 4-Nearest Anchor algorithms have come at the top of the proposed algorithm, respectively.
As shown at table 1, almost having the same values, proposed algorithm, 4- Nearest-Anchor and DV-Hop algorithms show the largest localization success ratio while RARL algorithm shows the lowest.