RASIGRail Applications Special Interest Group
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Higher cysteine and [alpha]-tocopherol, but lower lycopene in both GO and SGO compared to RASIG seem to be associated with a "beneficial" lifestyle, while the significantly lower malondialdehyde and higher 3-nitrotyrosine only in the GO compared to the RASIG group may indicate that families with long-living members are genetically better equipped to handle oxidative stress, yet the cause and impact of the higher 3-nitrotyrosine levels remain unclear.
We assume that (1) if there are differences between RASIG and the other two groups but no differences between GO and SGO, the reason may be lifestyle-related and (2) differences between GO and SGO (irrespective of the RASIG results) indicate genetic reasons.
Concentrations of malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine, and total cysteine were still different between the GO and the RASIG groups after the GLM adjustment, which may be an indication of a genetic contribution in age-associated handling of oxidative stress.
Direct comparison of the study groups revealed that the GO group had significantly lower concentrations of protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde accompanied by higher concentrations of cysteine, ascorbic acid, and [alpha]-tocopherol compared to RASIG. Contrarily, GO had lower lycopene and higher 3-nitrotyrosine than the RASIG group.
In the present study, protein carbonyls only correlated with age in the RASIG group (r = 0098, P <001; data not shown) but not when all three study groups were combined.
In contrast to protein carbonyls, 3-nitrotyrosine was significantly higher in GO compared to RASIG. 3-Nitrotyrosine has been described to be a stable marker of oxidative/nitrative stress in some inflammatory diseases [27].
However, the GO group had significantly lower plasma malondialdehyde concentrations than RASIG. This difference remained even after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, gender, and country.
In contrast to previous findings, cysteine is higher in the higher age groups in the RASIG and GO study groups and correlates positively with age among all participants (r = 0152, P <0001).
Concerning uric acid, our results show that there was no difference between RASIG and GO but higher concentrations in the SGO group than in the GO.
In a recent study, we have shown over the whole age-range of the MARK-AGE project from 35 to 75 (RASIG group) that lycopene was lower in higher age groups and this effect was independent of season [22].