A significantly greater reduction was observed for the adipokines leptin and RBP4
in the EXE group compared to the CON group.
String map (Figure 3(d)) displayed the genetic constitution, physical, and functional interaction among these proteins, from which 5 proteins (proteins KNG1, KRT1, MPO, RBP4
, and SAA) were located in central of the network and they were selected as target candidates in TJT treatment process.
In this context, three recognized biomarkers such as leptin, RBP4
and adiponectin (Zulet et al.
Several studies exploring the effects of exercise on circulating RBP4
levels have resulted in inconsistent findings.
Even though some studies demonstrated that plasma RBP4
levels positively correlated with insulin resistance in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes , most of studies suggested that blood RBP-4 concentrations were not associated with insulin resistance .
They found that levels of RBP4
were higher in mice in which the role of testosterone was impaired.
The protein fraction of 114 kDa (CRP), 26 kDa (TNF-x) and 20 kDa (RBP4
) are positively correlated with obesity and weight gain, whereas, 66 kDa (albumin), 49 kDa and 43 kDa (x-1 acid glycoprotein) protein fraction have negative association with obesity.
In this study, the influence and characteristics of PRLR3 and RBP4
genes on the back fat thickness, days to 90 kg, and average daily gain of Berkshire pigs were examined.
Recent animal and human studies have suggested that the soluble form of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4
),  initially thought to be only a retinol (vitamin A) transporter, is a major circulating adipokine implicated in systemic insulin resistance (3).
 observed the diabetic macular edema after proteomic analysis of vitreous and recorded six proteins including pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), ApoA-4, ApoA-1, thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 (Trip-11), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4
), and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and only Apo H is present in nondiabetic controls.
Among them, some members of the lipocalin family--retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4
),  lipocalin-2, and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4)--have been suggested to play important roles in the mechanisms of insulin resistance.
The latter category includes plasma membrane protein CD99, secreted proteins MIF, TTR, and RBP4
, tumor-marker EEF1A2, and several lysosomal enzymes (FUCA1, CTSZ, and GAA).