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The signal analysis algorithms used in the other methods are FFT , , STFT , Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) , DWT ,  and absolute value-based principal component analysis (AVB-PCA) , which suffer from unstable Q-factor, whereas, in the proposed method RDWT (constant Q-factor) is utilized for signal analysis.
the Technique Measured Analysis Method Technique Proposed Method Vibration RDWT 1 (SPLL based Signal Technique) Means of Statistical 2 Non- Processing Stray Flux FFT Contact Technique Method Multisensor Vibration, 3 Wireless System Current and HHT, FFT  Acoustic Spectral Kurtosis 4 and Envelope Stator Current FFT Analysis  Motor Current 5 Signature Analysis Current DWT (MCSA) , Contact Method Rotor Speed Based Vibration, Bearing Fault Current & AVB-PCA 6 Diagnosis Speed 7 Thermal-induced Temperature & FFT Shift Vibration Complexity (Special Signal S.
The error signal from SPLL is analysed with FFT, STFT and RDWTs. The outputs of these signal analysis algorithms are explained below.
The signals obtained from UWB radar are analysed with SPLL algorithm and RDWTs. The faulty signal of first 2.5 s is analysed.
RDWT is applied in this paper due to its excellent spatial localization, frequency spread, and multi-resolution characteristics which are similar to the theoretical models of the HVS.
Obviously, RDWT maintains a fixed sampling rate in the decomposition of each level, the redundancy makes it has the spread spectrum characteristic, which can not only increase the watermark embedding information but also enhance the noise immunity of watermarking algorithm.
Based on this, the LL-band image obtained by RDWT is used for watermarking in this paper, as it represents the low-frequency information, contains the primary details and can be retained with large probability after TM.
Then, RDWT is used to enhance the robustness for the characteristics of spread spectrum and redundancy.
The SWT is also known as redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT).
In section 3, mathematics and information on redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT); Singular Value Decomposition and CS theory are presented.
Authors in  proposed a watermarking algorithm based on RDWT for biometric watermarks.
Authors in  proposed RDWT and independent component analysis (ICA) based watermarking algorithm for multiple logo insertions.
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