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In brief, prezoosporangia were produced by the injection of a clonal culture of Perkinsus olseni (American Type Culture Collection, ATCC#: PRA-181) isolated from Manila clams in Japan (Dungan & Reece 2006) to uninfected adult Manila clam and by subsequent incubation in RFTM. The prezoosporangia were incubated to induce zoosporulation and transformation to zoosporangia in aquaria containing seawater at 25[degrees]C: an aquarium (60 cm L x 30 cm W) containing 40 L seawater and that (36.5 cm L x 21.5 cm W) containing 8 L seawater for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively.
rhizophorae to riverside populations along estuaries in Northeast Brazil, the purpose of this study was to evaluate wild populations of Crassostrea rhizophorae with regard to the presence of pathogens of the genus Perkinsus using the RFTM, histology and PCR techniques.
and a Perkinsus beihaiensis-like species using the RFTM assay, whereas oysters collected in the estuary of the River Package, Fortaleza (CE), in northeastern Brazil tested positive (Sabry et al.
The 20 smaller oysters (63.3-81.7 mm) displayed lower weighted prevalences than the 20 larger oysters (81.8-106.8 mm) by RFTM (1.50 vs.
olseni in the Manila clam for a 2 y using Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay (RFTM) and the 2-M NaOH digestion technique.
The MSBBs of all strains at all sites remained below the rectal RFTM assay's functional detection limit of [10.sup.3] cells/g wet tissue weight (Bushek et al.
KEY WORDS: Dermo, Perkinsus marinus, real-time PCR, RFTM, eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica
Stokes for providing histological, ISH and RFTM disease analyses; K.
were diagnosed by Ray Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (RFTM), followed by staining with Lugol iodine solution (Ray 1952, Ray et al.
Thirty feral oysters from adjacent natural bars were dredged simultaneously with tray collections and examined using the RFTM rectal tissue assay (Ray 1952, Ray 1966) to estimate infection prevalences and relative intensities of local infection pressures emanating from pathogen reservoir oyster populations.
Existing infections become latent during winter and spring (Andrews 1954, Crosby & Roberts 1990) and are then often undetectable by standard Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) assays of tissue subsamples (Ray 1952).
Lipid supplementation during RFTM incubation enhanced recovery of cultured P.
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