In summary, metabolic impairment post-CS exposure plays a major role in cellular dysfunction by participating in the vicious cycle of CS-induced RIMD (Figure 2).
In conclusion, drugs that target the detrimental smoking-induced cycle of RIMD seem to exert beneficial effects by attenuating CS-induced cardiac dysfunction in the presence or absence of acute cardiac events.
In this review, we presented for the first time the concept of RIMD to explain CS-mediated adverse effects on the myocardium.
RNPH, SUGY, RODM, ROTL and RIMD were studied to analyze the response of sugar beet to different tillage methods.
Although there was no significant difference in RY, SUGY, RODM, ROTL and RIMD during the years of study, results showed that tillage practices were useful in improving the yield of sugar beet.
In contrast, the minimum values of RY (71.3 t [ha.sup.-1]), SUGY (9.15 t [ha.sup.-1]) and RODM (20.3%) were observed in case of NT treatment, while the minimum values of ROTL (18.0 cm) and RIMD (1.1 cm) were noted in case of MR treatment (Table 3).
Different tillage methods significantly (P # 0.05) affected RNPH, but there was no significant difference in RY, SUGY, RODM, ROTL and RIMD. Although there was no significant difference in most studied traits, tillage practices were beneficial in improving the yield and quality of sugar beet.