das Sarma, "Disordered RKKY
lattice mean field theory for ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors," Physical Review Letters, vol.
In order to study the interplay between Kondo screening and the RKKY
Ueda says a consensus is now emerging among theorists that the Kondo effect can dominate and overcome the RKKY
effect, provided certain conditions of electron density and electron energy states are met in the band of orbits that contributes most to the magnetic effects of the rare-earth ions, the so-called f band.
For example, in Ce-Al bulk metallic glasses, the tunable competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY
) interaction with the variation in Ce-concentration and the magnetic field  is suggested.
On the other hand, the indirect exchange interaction models such as Zener/Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY
)-type exchange, double- and super-exchange, F-center-mediated bound magnetic polaron models, are hard to explain the observed RT FM induced by only few percent of magnetic ions.
For instance, the magnetism of the TM doped ZnO has been attributed to ferromagnetic coupling of the local moment of TM dopants through the carrier-mediated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY
) interaction , indirect double-exchange [22, 23] or super-exchange , and so forth.