RMSSDRoot Mean Square of Successive Differences
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In the same comparison, there were increases of 12.5% (95% CI: 3.8%, 21.2%) in HF power, 3.2% (95% CI: -2.9%, 9.3%) in VLF power, 4.1% (95% CI: -2.4%, 10.7%) in SDNN, 10.9% (95% CI: 1.8%, 20.0%) in rMSSD, and 22.1% (95% CI: 3.6%, 40.7%) in pNN50% (Table 3, Figure 2).
Effects on time domain analysis: As shown in Table 3 and 4, the time domain analysis for the HW litters got higher results than for the LW litters, but the differences in SDANN and RMSSD were not significant.
Time and frequency domain parameters for HRV analyses Variable Unit Description Time Domain Parameters Mean RR ms Average RR interval SDNN ms Standard deviation of all NN interval RMSSD ms The square root of the mean squared difference between adjacent N-N intervals, reflects mainly vagally influence pNN50 % Percentage of normal normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds Frequency Domain Parameters VLF [ms.sup.2] Power spectrum band between 0.003-0.04 Hz LF [ms.sup.2] Power spectrum band between 0.04-0.15 Hz, reflects sympathetic activity HF [ms.sup.2] Power spectrum band between 0.15-0.4 Hz, reflects parasympathetic activity LF/HF n.u.
However, because rMSSD is generally associated with vagal pathways, our results with unchanged rMSSD suggest an increase in sympathetic tone in SHR rats.
In the time domain (Figure 4), only the rMSSD parameter showed a significant statistical difference before and after reflexotherapy sessions: from 93 [+ or -] 38 to 21.3 [+ or -] 4.7 ms (p < 0.01).
Results: The SDNN, SDANN, rMSSD, PNN50 and HF parameters significantly increased compared with the conventional treatment group (all P less than 0.05).
Although these parameters did not differ in the 2 groups of rats with saline treatment, overall HR variability (variance of PI) and beat-to-beat variability attributed to parasympathetic modulation (RMSSD of PI) were reduced significantly in ISO treated rats (P < 0.05, Figures 5(a) and 5(b)).
Main effect of group (acute WAD, chronic WAD, and healthy controls), main effect of time (rest, TS prior to cuff inflation, and TS during cuff inflation), and group x time interaction was evaluated for all dependent variables (skin conductance, heart rate, SDNN, RMSSD, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio).
RMSSD - Square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals; NN50 is the number of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50.
Heart rate variability was calculated using the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) of interbeat intervals (IBIs): [square root of ([(1/n[SIGMA]([IBI.sub.i] - [IBI.sub.i-1]).sup.2])], reflecting mainly high frequency power, and is therefore an adequate measure of the cardiac vagal tone [32, 33].
Those parameters included: the mean of R-R intervals (RRmean), average heart rate (HRmean), standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of consecutive R-R intervals differing by more than 50ms (pNN50), and high to low frequency ratio (LF/HF).