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There are also many theoretic frameworks or models focusing on college student outcomes, among which Tinto's, Astin's, and Pascarella's models primarily focus on students' college experiences during college on students' various outcomes (Roksa & Whitley, 2017), but these models pay little attention to the influence of psychological aspects on college students' outcomes.
"If students change majors because they are struggling academically in prerequisite or major classes, it would imply the need for stronger preparation in K12 education as well as more attention to academic readiness in college," says Roksa. Students in this position would benefit from additional instruction or tutoring, she says.
Students at schools with a higher college-going culture are 1.6 times more likely to apply to a 4-year college compared to students at schools with a low college-going culture (Robinson & Roksa, 2016).
Josipa Roksa, lead author of the study and a professor of sociology and education at the University of Virginia, emphasized that the study wasn't a condemnation of diversity.
Significant percentages of college students successfully complete requirements for graduation without progressing in the development of their critical thinking skills (Arum & Roksa, 2011; Blaich, 2007).
In a four-year study conducted in the USA, Arum and Roksa (2010) found that 45% of students made no improvement in the areas of critical thinking, analytic reasoning and communication skills in the first two years in college, and 36% showed no improvement over the entire four years.
However, as higher education becomes more tightly linked to job and career preparation in both the public imagination and the actual practices of institutions, students are not surprisingly focused increasingly on credentialing (Arum and Roksa; Blum; Selingo, "College" and "There is Life").
There is little evidence that growth in these state transfer policies, however, has led to improvement in bachelor's degree completion for transfer students (Anderson, Sun, & Alfonso, 2006; Goldhaber et al., 2008; Gross & Goldhaber, 2009; Roksa & Keith, 2008).
Indeed, much of the conversation around CBE now cites Arum and Roksa's controversial Academically Adrift study asserting that undergraduates are earning degrees without actually learning.
In their 2011 book, Aspiring Adults Adrift, sociologists Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa described the student educational experience as follows:
"College Graduates: Satisfied, but Adrift" is Richard Arum's summation of the two well-known books he has written with Josipa Roksa, Academically Adrift on College Campuses (2011) and Aspiring Adults Adrift: Tentative Transitions of College Graduates (2014).