In Summer 2003, the BarOn EQ-i: YV(S), the DIT-2, and the RRSL were administered to students who agreed to participate in the study and participated in either the CLI or the Equinox program.
For the RRSL, students' total leadership scores were converted to national percentile ranks as presented in the technical manual to compare with students in the normative sample consisting of 1,057 students in grades 5-12 living in the United States (see Roets, 1997).
There was a significant, negative correlation between total scores on the RRSL (leadership) and SAT-Math (r  = -.19, p = .049) and between the RRSL (leadership) and SAT-Combined (r  = -.20, p = .036), suggesting that higher levels of mathematical ability or academic ability were associated with lower levels of leadership (see Table 2).
The academically gifted students in this study had higher scores on average on the DIT-2 and the RRSL compared to the normative samples.
The Chinese SRBCSS incorporated six subscales, including leadership, and, except for the (added) section on mathematical reasoning, parent and teacher ratings of students on SRBCSS subscales were significantly correlated with students' self-rated scores on the RRSL. Correlations were positive, yet low to moderate, ranging from r = .17 to r = .38.
To clarify the structure of the RRSL, Chan (2000a) conducted an exploratory maximum likelihood factor analysis on the 163 students' RRSL responses.
Modifications to the Chinese SRBCSS may have adversely affected the measure's validity or reliability, while the RRSL translation appears to have been carried out in accordance with recommended practice.
Commonly used measures of youth leadership reported in the gifted literature include the Leadership Skills Inventory (Karnes & Chauvin, 2000), the Leadership Strengths Indicator (Ellis, 1990), the RRSL (Roets, 1991), the leadership subscale of the SRBCSS (Renzulli et al., 1976), and, occasionally, the Leadership Skills and Behaviors Scale (Sisk, 1987).
Students' IQ and leadership skills were also assessed for baseline information using the SPM and the RRSL
. The SPM assesses nonverbal intelligence using patterns and designs and has been normed and standardized for Hong Kong students (Hong Kong Education Department, 1986).