RSV-FRespiratory Syncytial Virus F Glycoprotein
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RSV-F amplicons were sequenced by using an automated sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA).
Along with the newly generated nucleotide sequences from the 123 children (23 palivizumab recipients; 100 nonrecipients), we analyzed 92 clinical RSV-F sequences provided by other investigators (10,11) or available from GenBank.
However, this segregation likely reflects temporal evolution rather than geographic influence because all RSV-F sequences originating from other countries were collected [greater than or equal to] 10 years ago.
Of the 23 RSV-F amino acid sequences from patients who received palivizumab (Table 2), 2 exhibited a mutation at residue 272 (K272Q, K272M), whereas no such mutations were identified in the other 100 strains obtained from those who did not receive palivizumab (8.7% versus 0%; p = 0.03, by Fisher exact test).
We report the prevalence of resistance-conferring mutations in RSV-F among children receiving or not receiving palivizumab.
These findings underscore the need for continued monitoring of RSV-F evolution.
Three studies of another RSV-F vaccine in mice and cotton rats showed that either 2 or 3 injections at 3-week intervals of RSV-F antigen formulated with virosomes (empty influenza virus envelopes) induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies.
Investigators demonstrated in a mouse model that a single intranasal dose of a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus-based RSV-F vaccine is sufficient for protecting against RSV infection and represents a promising vaccination regimen.
Recently, investigators used genetic engineering to develop apple plants that carry RSV-F antigenic protein.
High levels of virus were measured in unimmunised control animals but no RSV was detected in the lungs of animals immunised with any dose of the Novavax RSV-F vaccine, with or without adjuvant.
In the current study, the lungs of RSV challenged cotton rats were examined and there was no sign that immunisation with the Novavax RSV-F vaccine candidate resulted in enhanced disease.
In addition to completing this preclinical study in cotton rats, Novavax also reported the successful scale up of the manufacturing process for the RSV-F vaccine candidate.