Fernao Lopes de Castanheda, who was writing at the time of the Portuguese activities in the Indian Ocean, often mentions the Rumes as he did when referring to earlier periods of the Ottoman presence in Jeddah and of the intentions of the Portuguese governor.
Joao de Barros, another noted historian contemporary with the Portuguese expansion in Africa and Asia before the Ottomans gained control of Basra and Lahsa, refers to the Ottomans as 'Turks' as much as Rumes in the third decada of his book.
E assi sao diCerentes naco es Rumes, e Turcos; porque estes tem a sua origem da Provincia da Turchestan, e os Rumes da Grecia, e Tracia.
Diogo de Couto, one of the historians of the Portuguese Empire of the Indian Ocean, who continued to write the Decadas of Joao de Barros, and who also attempted to emphasize the difference between the Rumes and Turcos, and to explain why they were called Rumes, could not avoid repeating what his predecessor had said: the Rumes were native to the province of Thrace, and to parts of Constantinople.
37) There is, however, occasional mention of 'Rumes' to indicate that their reputation was still intact: Castanheda refers to the 'Rumes' active in the early 1530s as foot soldiers and artillery men when Captain Diogo da Silveira fought against 'Bandora' in Gujarat: 'avia cinco mil homes de pe, de qmuitas era Rumes [.
Muytas vezes perguntava, andando nas guerras destes reis da India, a algum soldado branco se era Turco, e respondia que nao, senao que era Rume; e a outras perguntava se erao Rumes e respondiao-me que nao, senao que erao Turcos: e perguntandolhe qual era a diCerenca que havia antre hum e outro, diziaome que eu a nao podia entender, porque nao sabia os nomes das terras nem a lingua mo sabia dar a entender.
Tras este vem Noronha, cujo auspicyo De Dio os Rumes feros afugenta; Dio, que o peito e belico exercycio Da Anto nio da Silveira bem sustente.