After the instrumentation was applied, the participant was seated with her or his right elbow flexed to 90[degrees] and shoulder abducted 90[degrees] to a horizontal position while the wrist was held in a neutral position (both flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation).
The data for each trial were then averaged to produce one value of wrist position in the flexion/extension plane and one value of wrist position in the radial/ulnar plane over the course of the third cycle of each condition.
5[degrees] slant angle), then wrist ulnar deviation is reduced to almost a neutral position in the radial/ulnar plane.
Wrist position was measured in both the radial/ulnar and flexion/extension planes.
The mean, minimum, maximum, and variance for the positions of both wrists in the radial/ulnar
plane for the alphabetic and alphanumeric typing tasks are presented in Table 3.
This fixture allowed flexion and extension to be performed and measured while participants maintained a secondary radial/ulnar deviation posture.
the radial/ulnar channel was not recorded when measuring flexion/extension, and vice versa).
The 10-cm objects as compared with the 5-cm objects required, for most comparisons, larger radial/ulnar
and pronation/supination wrist positions [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 6B AND 6C OMITTED] and velocities.
The problem to be addressed arises in the common application of the goniometer across the wrist joint during measurement of wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation.
The first set of trials was designed to test the effect of varying forearm supination/pronation on goniometric measurements during flexion/extension of the wrist while maintaining a neutral radial/ulnar deviation posture.
Data were collected from the subject's forearm and wrist via three goniometers: one measuring radial/ulnar movements, one measuring flexion/extension movements, and one measuring pronation/supination movements.
When three-dimensional wrist positions calculated by this procedure were compared with positions calculated by standard video-based techniques, our estimates were within 3% of the video-based estimates in the flexion/extension and radial/ulnar planes and within 4% of the estimates in the supination/pronation plane.