Reactive nitrogen oxide species
react with transition metals (such as zinc and iron in heme containing proteins) and thiol groups in various enzymes and proteins.
Unlike alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol scavenges reactive nitrogen oxide species
(such as peroxynitrite), and might thereby decrease cell damage induced by these molecules.
The signaling processes through which NO acts to regulate immune cells are extremely complex and are only just beginning to be revealed, but are largely indirect through generation of reactive nitrogen oxide species
that chemically modify enzymes, signaling proteins and transcription factors.