To address this concern, our study quantitatively assessed the relationship between the change in inhalation of daily averaging concentration of atmospheric particles and the number of respiratory hospital admissions
for different seasons in Lanzhou, aiming also to provide insight into how reducing environmental pollution would help protect people from respiratory disease.
To address possible exposure misclassification resulting from the use of pollution data from a single monitoring station, we did a sensitivity analysis restricted to emergency respiratory hospital admissions
among TW residents.
In this cohort, 9.3% of the population comprised children < 10 years of age (Table 1), but they accounted for 12.9% of asthma physician visits, 14.6% of all respiratory physician visits, and 13.9% of respiratory hospital admissions
. Similarly, 16.6% of the population was > 70 years old, and they accounted for 48.5% of respiratory hospital admission
The pooled estimate of percent increase (95% CI) in neonatal respiratory hospital admissions
associated with an increase in air pollution concentration increase equal in magnitude to its interquartile range.
The results of the adjusted analysis for the nonepidemic periods showed a significant relationship between N[O.sub.2] concentration and respiratory hospital admissions
; that is, a 1% increase was observed in the risk of emergency respiratory admissions per each unit of increase in N[O.sub.2] concentration.
The effects of fine particle components on respiratory hospital admissions
Another uncertainty is the accuracy of our estimates of the risks of respiratory hospital admissions
and the excess lengths of stay and costs related to extreme heat.
The largest effects of constituents on cardiovascular hospital admissions were generally estimated at shorter pollutant lags, whereas larger effect estimates for respiratory hospital admissions
tended to occur at longer lags.
Admission category Daily average Total (2001-2002) Cause-specific admissions Respiratory 43.9 31,302 Pneumonia 26.4 18,811 COPD 11.1 7,894 Asthma 5.1 3,644 Cardiovascular 101.6 72,415 Dysrhythmia 14.4 10,270 IHD 30.8 21,973 Heart failure 27.8 19,822 Stroke 20.3 14,472 Admissions by NYC borough Respiratory 43.9 31,302 Manhattan 9.3 6,624 Brooklyn 13.1 9,359 Bronx 7.8 5,534 Queens 11.4 8,156 Staten Island 2.3 1,629 Cardiovascular 101.6 72,415 Manhattan 20.3 14,440 Brooklyn 32.8 23,384 Bronx 16.4 11,690 Queens 27.4 19,504 Staten Island 4.8 3,397 Respiratory hospital admissions
. Total respiratory hospital admissions
were associated with nonspecific [PM.sub.2.5] at lag 2 day (Figure 1A).
In this study, we investigated the influences of PM generated from sugar cane burning on respiratory hospital admissions
of children and the elderly.
Effect estimates: respiratory hospital admissions
. Detailed hospital admission and discharge records provide data for an extensive body of literature examining the relationship between hospital admissions and air pollution.
Thus exposure-response functions for mortality and hospital admissions for [PM.sub.10] and [O.sub.3] and for hospital admissions only for N[O.sub.2] were combined with population, mortality, and hospital admission data to produce estimates of the numbers of deaths brought forward and of respiratory hospital admissions
(additional and brought forward) avoided by the use of VECs in urban areas.