The limitation of our study was patients with significant pulmonary disease such as obstructive and restrictive lung disease
who were not taken up in the study.
The link was stronger for restrictive lung diseases
, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis, than it was for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Previous findings from animal experiments also show a significant connection between restrictive lung diseases
and diabetes mellitus.
In this study restrictive lung disease
was the dominant pulmonary defect in hypertensive patients.
Pulmonary-related complications may be chronic or acute and may include restrictive lung disease
, chronic hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, and interstitial fibrosis.
The significant positive correlation of [FEV.sub.1]/FVC, on the other hand, cannot be clearly explained, unless if the higher [FEV.sub.1]/FVC translates into a more severe restrictive lung disease
His past medical history was notable for coronary artery disease, status post-coronary artery bypass grafting with multiple percutaneous interventions, a permanent pacemaker, congestive heart failure, restrictive lung disease
, and obstructive sleep apnea.
Listing of Obstructive and Restrictive Lung Diseases
Obstructive Lung Diseases Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Chronic bronchitis Cystic fibrosis Emphysema Subglottic or tracheal stenosis Tracheomalacia Vascular ring Vocal cord dysfunction Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Restrictive Lung Disease
Interstitial lung disease Neuromuscular disorders Obesity Sarcoidosis Scoliosis Source: Adapted from Jat, 2013; Patra, 2012.
Spirometric restriction can only suggest restrictive lung disease
and requires further assessment of lung volumes to confirm the diagnosis (Fig.
The presence of taut, thin skin causing contractures; Raynaud phenomenon; esophageal dysmotility; restrictive lung disease
; and the autoantibodies anticentromere and anti-Scl-70 is used to further confirm and distinguish different subtypes of systemic sclerosis.
In this group of diseases which are familial and observed rarely, gas Exchange is disrupted as a result of interstitial and alveolar inflammation and fibrosis and findings of restrictive lung disease
The pulmonary function test demonstrates restrictive lung disease
, which results in cardio-respiratory failure.